Averroes 1126-1198

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Averroes also was an Arab writer and as such was a devoted commentator on Aristotle whose writings he tried to harmonize with those of Galen. He utilized a "dignified, straightforward treatment of evidence, thus aiding in the development of the scientific method then in its infacy." He likewise encouraged the development of a critical, inquiring way of looking at nature which was so much needed during the Middle Ages.


EARLY HERBALS

APULEIUS BARBARUS, APULEIUS PLACTONICUS OR PSEUDO-APULEIUS

The most influential early Latin herbal was that of Apuleius Barbarus, Apuleius Platonicus or Pseudo-Apuleius. The herbal is an important compilation of medical recipes, compiled from Greek sources of the year 400 A.D. The earliest known copy dates from the 7th Century and was probably written in Southern France. This herbal contains figures that are inferior to Roman ones from which they have been developed. However, these illustrations provided material for European illustrators for many generations. Along with Dioscorides' De Materia Medica this herbal served as the chief basis of botanical knowledge and the main sources of illustrations of plants during the so-called Dark Ages. The herbal was probably translated into Anglo-Saxon about 1000 A.D. The finely illustrated codex in the Bristish Museum entitled Cotton Vitellius C. III is dated about the middle of the 11th Century. Another fine manuscript was written and illustrated at Bury St. Edmunds in England in 1120 A.D.